The term biomass refers to any material produced from living organisms such as wood and other products coming from the forest, cultivation residuals, animal husbandry waste, food industry waste etc.) and can be used as fuel to produce energy. Pellets are a form of biomass which is the result of the mechanical compression of those materials without chemicals or adhesives being added.
Pellets have a low moisture content (less than 12%) and high density.
They are produced from wood that has not been processed with flammable substances, adhesives or colour. Then, with the use of special machinery, the materials are compressed into cylinders that have different lengths and thickness. (1,5 – 2 cm in length and 6 – 8 in diameter).
Pellets are easy to use and offer a high thermal value (LHV=4,000-4,500 kcal/kg). The operational independence, the small area that the fuel occupies, and the abundance of the storage containers are its greatest advantages.
In addition, it is considered to be an ecological fuel.
During combustion it emits almost zero carbon dioxide (CO2) and it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect given that the carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted during biomass combustion is absorbed by the plants to create biomass.
The minimal sulphur content contributes significantly to limiting sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions, which are responsible for acid rain.
Given that biomass is a domestic source of energy, converting it to energy significantly reduces the dependence of imported fuel and the improvement of the balance of trade, the assurance of energy supply and saving on foreign exchange.
Contribution to a region’s socio-economic development, biomass exploitation for energy production increases employment in the agricultural regions with the creation of alternative cultivations (various types of rapeseed, sorghum, sugar came etc.), the formation of alternative markets for the traditional cultivations (sunflower etc.) and the retention of populations in their homeland.